In his book The Death of Competition: Leadership and Strategy in the Age of Business Ecosystems (Harper Business, 1996), James Moore first applied the model of a biological ecosystem to business when he defined a “business ecosystem” as:
“An economic community supported by a foundation of interacting organizations and individuals—the organisms of the business world. The economic community produces goods and services of value to customers, who are themselves members of the ecosystem. The member organisms also include suppliers, lead producers, competitors, and other stakeholders. Over time, they coevolve their capabilities and roles, and tend to align themselves with the directions set by one or more central companies. Those companies holding leadership roles may change over time, but the function of ecosystem leader is valued by the community because it enables members to move toward shared visions to align their investments, and to find mutually supportive roles.”
The concept of business ecosystems has since been widely adopted and proven to be a valuable tool in information technology business strategy. Today we are familiar with the concept of business ecosystems as a network of organizations – including suppliers, distributors, customers, competitors, government agencies and so on – involved in the delivery of a specific product or service through both competition and cooperation.
However, Augmented Reality (AR), whether as an industry, technology, product, or service, is neither well defined nor discrete. It is a cross-cutting, enabling capability.